新冠病毒肆虐美国,被称为大封锁的经济寒潮席卷全国。2200万人在一个月内失业,暂时停业的中小商户损失惨重。其中,华裔商户遭遇种族歧视与经济停摆的双重打击。

3月初,一名醉汉闯进首都华盛顿市区的茗觉茶馆,问店主卖不卖corona(冠状),又高呼噢,亚洲人! 店主张韵晗只好与店内客人合力把醉汉赶了出去。

几天后,一名客人入店,一看见店主夫妇的华人面孔,便转身离开,只留下惊讶的两人面面相觑。

店主张韵晗对BBC说,无法深究这些骚扰事件与新冠病毒疫情有多大关联,但一个月内,类似事件频发,他被迫报警了4、5回。

疫情笼罩下,针对亚裔的骚扰与攻击事件在美国频发。其中许多是口头挑衅、吐口水等骚扰,但亦有多宗几乎危及人命的极端案例。

在纽约布鲁克林,一名华裔女子在出门倒垃圾时被泼酸性液体,脸、颈大面积灼伤。在德克萨斯州,一名男子在超市用刀攻击3名亚裔美国人,其中包括两名幼童,因为他认为这家人感染了病毒。

人权观察组织(HWR)在4月17日发表的一篇报道中引用美国亚裔社团的统计数据称,自疫情爆发以来,已经有超过1000例针对亚裔的种族歧视事件报案。美国联邦调查局(FBI)也警告说,在Covid-19病毒疫情期间,针对亚裔的仇视犯罪可能持续上升。

由于疫情最早在中国爆发,亚裔商铺在疫情初期的营收就已显著下降,甚至成为抢劫的目标。在随后而来的大封锁中,这些商铺更是血本无归。

茗觉茶馆专营高品质中国茶饮,在2月中旬刚刚开业。据店主介绍, 被《华盛顿邮报》等媒体报道后,茶馆生意一度飙升,谁知却在3月初插水式下跌了80%。当时,当地甚至还未出现首宗确诊病例

华盛顿3月中旬关闭非必要商户,餐饮业店铺本可以暂停堂食、维持外卖,但张韵晗选择暂时关停茶馆。

特朗普总统当时发出的一则推文,让他深感不安。推文中,特朗普首次将新冠病毒称为中国病毒,外界批评其发言将病毒与种族挂钩,将亚裔置于危险境地。

先不说赚多少钱,一颗子弹就可以毁掉我们,张韵晗说,特朗普的一些不经意的话,小则影响生意,大则威胁到我们的生命。

在美国疫情震央纽约市,通常人潮涌动的曼哈顿唐人街如今一片萧条。

负面影响最早从1月底就开始了,在纽约生活的华裔演员张英华(Yin Chang)对BBC说。根据当时的媒体报道,美国多地唐人街中餐馆营业额最多下跌80%,其中又以小型夫妻店的损失最为惨重。

唐人街如今如同鬼城,许多店铺都拉上了铁闸,人烟稀少。华裔餐饮业者蔡孟伶(Moonlynn Tsai)在唐人街附近经营马来菜餐厅Kopitiam,她对BBC说,目前的日营业额只是以往的2%到5%。

每个人都要去适应这个新常态。她估计,纽约市可能最早在7月才能重开。

在加州长大的蔡孟伶还记得SARS病毒引起的种族偏见,见证当地华人商铺蒙受损失,自家的家族企业最终也不得不结业。如今类似的情景似乎又再度上演。

现在拨打许多美国中餐馆的电话时,都会听到这样的电话录音:我们因为病毒而停业了。谢谢你的理解。愿主保佑你。

尽管生意停摆,一些亚裔餐饮业者没有让厨房白白空置,转而为社会中的弱势群体备餐。

为了消除针对亚裔的歧视,张英华与蔡孟伶在纽约发起了Table to Table倡议。她们在网上募集捐款、征集志愿者,烹饪数百份的热食,还在饭盒上写上中文的鼓励词句,送到唐人街独居老人的手上。

跳过 Instagram 帖子用户名 tabletotablenyc

Been on continuous calls on the daily with various different organizations serving our neighbors in/near Chinatown, all doing essential work for society, learning more and more about our most vulnerable population and brainstorming with these orgs about logistics, distribution and the many moving parts surrounding those steps. • • • Our elderly are one of our most susceptible especially during these times. Food is scarce, pantries have run out, home assistance is nearly non-existent, and the need for food is only spiking higher by the day. There are so many of us who were raised by immigrant grandparents, and we understand the feeling and the urgency of not wanting the cultural and language barriers to prevent them from getting the help they need. Not having enough volunteers to safely distribute the food in these large complex buildings has been the most difficult piece to solve and has prevented many elders from receiving food. We’re cooking more hot meals for the elders under the care of different organizations like the Chinese-American Planning Council @cpc__nyc. Next week, we’re going to provide as many hot meals as we are able to for their elderly residents in Lower Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens! If you own a restaurant and would like to contribute hot meals with us, please send us a DM. • • • Thank you, to each and every one of you. for jumping in with your contributions to help us continue nourishing our po-po’s 婆婆 and gong-gong’s 公公, we are overwhelmed by your generosity and the hope you’ve provided during these challenging times. • • • (Thank you for taking these heartwarminguplifting photos for us @prissyxo_93 🙏)

结尾 Instagram 帖子用户名 tabletotablenyc

多家中餐馆也发起了类似的活动,免费送餐给疫情下的弱势群体、以及仍需在外奔波的前线工作者。

跳过 Instagram 帖子 2 用户名 tabletotablenyc

We are incredibly proud of our friends @eighteightsix @junzikitchen @macaronparlour for their knee-deep contributions to our communities. We’re honored and grateful to have them co-host our postponed Table to Table food outings in/around Chinatown (after we all flatten the curve) to help stimulate awareness for the local mom-and-pop shops that have been one of the very first businesses to get hit by destructive losses due to racism and xenophobia. Our friends and their teams of loved ones and staff are doing incredible work coming up with solutions to uplift those impacted by COVID 19 by directly helping our selfless heroes working in healthcare. Please read through below to see what each of them are doing at this time, then head over to their Instagram and click on the link in their bios to donate if you’d love to contribute! • • @eighteightsix has been cooking and packing bentos back-to-back for over a week now, turning their restaurant into a full-on bento operation to nourish the heroes working in the 8+ hospitals on rotation! • • @junzikitchen just partnered with NYC’s largest hospital system, New York Presbyterian @nyphospital, to provide meals for the staff at their hospitals! • • @macaronparlour have been pulling all-nighters cutting and sewing HOMEMADE masks for every order received for their macarons, donating those masks directly to a local hospital! • • If you know of more restaurants doing something similar, please let us know and we will continue to share through our Instagram stories to spread the word! (📸 @eighteightsix @junzikitchen @macaronparlour ) #saverestaurants #lovingchinatown #healthcareheroes

结尾 Instagram 帖子 2 用户名 tabletotablenyc

这些是照顾我们的人,蔡孟伶说,华裔家庭教育从小的教育就强调责任,我们不可能在此时抛下他们。

两人还计划在疫情退散后,主办唐人街餐饮旅行团,为中餐馆募集善款。

与此同时,大量华裔美国人利用在中美两国的人脉与微信等通讯平台,从中国采购医疗物资运至美国赈灾。

据介绍, 新冠病毒流行带来的亚裔污名现象与经济打击,从某种层面反而巩固了亚裔与社区的连结,这股团结的力量并不仅限于亚裔族群当中。

张韵晗说,发生在茶馆的骚扰事件在网上曝光后,许多街坊邻居赶在闭店前消费支持。这场疫情,反而让我更确定,大家喜欢我们的茶和店。

跳过 Twitter 帖子用户名 @valleybrooktea

Wed like to thank everyone who came to support us today. Were so touched by your kindness. We love this community. Together, we can get through anything. Thank you and good night

Valley Brook Tea (@valleybrooktea)

结尾 Twitter 帖子用户名 @valleybrooktea

美国主流媒体多次报道亚裔在疫情期间的遭遇,数之不尽的观点文章、公开信号召反对针对亚裔的种族主义。

写道:这场危机在美国激起了傲慢和污名化。这应该是所有美国人加倍对抗这些势力的时候。

尽管总统特朗普称,美国疫情已过最高点,许多亚裔商户仍未看到隧道尽头的亮光。

美国上月宣布史无前例的两万亿美元疫情纾困计划,其中拨款3490亿美元帮助小型企业度过危机。在短短两周内,项目的资金竟已耗尽。白宫与国会正商讨追加2500亿美元预算,但共和、民主两党就如何投放资金陷入了僵局。

对于政府能否支持他们度过危机,小商户开始失去信心,代表30万家小型企业的美国主街协会(Main Street America)会长费雷(Patrice Frey)对BBC说。

张韵晗的茗觉茶店因在今年2月中旬才开张,无法提供前一年的流水账,可能没有资格申请纾困贷款。不能指望这个,他说。目前,茶店带来些许营收,但仍是杯水车薪;房东则暂免去部分房租,共度时艰。

张韵晗说,他的茶店能撑到夏季。但即便届时经济能重开,他估计人流量不会立即恢复正常,经营前景依然困难重重。我们的主要客群、学生夏季不在华盛顿,而老人家们也不会马上开始走动。

特朗普近日宣布,将分3个阶段重开美国经济,并交由各州州长自行决定。

特朗普总统讲话的几乎同时, 美国多州近日爆发了多起反对封锁的抗议,示威者反对居家隔离,认为政策限制了公民自由,他们还要求尽快重开经济。

社交媒体流传的一段视频中,一名示威者挥舞着自由之地的标语,向站在其车前反对抗议的护士高呼:如果你要共产主义,去中国!

This video of an anti-quarantine protester yelling at a health care worker to Go to China if you want communism is absolutely bonkers

要平衡防治疫情与重开经济并不容易。科学家警告,重开经济如果操之过急,疫情可能卷土重来。而美国目前仍无法测试大批的复工者与追踪确诊人员的密切接触者。

尽管盼望生意早日恢复正常,张韵晗希望,政府不要仓促复工。商户的成本压力会马上回归,仍担心被传染的客人却不会立即上门。还不如等到彻底安全再重开。

本文疫情中美国华人商户的恐惧与困境:“一颗子弹就足以毁掉我们”南坞新闻发布的原创文章
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